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Mercury Poisoned


Due to the high dosage of mercury previously in vaccines (187.5 mcg in first six month’s vaccines), and the inability of these children to excrete metals normally, they probably have heavy-metal poisoning with mercury and aluminum (also in the vaccines), as well as arsenic, cadmium, antimony, nickel, and lead. These heavy metals not only affect the brain, but mercury impairs the functioning of enzymes that have sulfur and hydrogen (-SH) at the end of the molecular chain. These include glutathione, lipoic acid, and Coenzyme A. These toxic metals also impair the enzymes sulfite oxidase and cysteine dioxygenase interfering with sulfur oxidation, creating a lack of sulfate. Many people who are mercury toxic are sensitive to foods that are high in sulfur, which includes all dairy products and most green vegetables. We fret about the heavy metals in vaccines, yet we allow the kid to drink from aluminum cans! The Environmental Protection Agency requires that public water have less than 50 ppb [Parts Per Billion] of aluminum, yet canned beverages contain as much as 6,160 ppb!


The PST children, having the least urinary thiols (sulfurs) and thus the least capacity to excrete heavy metals, especially mercury, are most poisoned by these vaccines! Low excretion of mercury may be due to low glutathione levels and low sulfation common to these PST kids. Please have the GSH-status and sulfation status tested, and if those are low, it explains your low excretion levels, and can also mean that you actually have very high levels of mercury accumulated. If that is the case, then you need to get your GSH-levels up and your sulfation pathways repaired and back on line. Then, if you succeed with that, your excretion levels may become huge for a while, provided there are enough nutrients, especially thiols available, and that sulfur metabolism is working right.


One study showed mercury was still gassing off ninety days after painting with latex paint: “These data demonstrate that potentially hazardous elemental mercury exposure may occur even in homes recently painted with indoor latex paint that contains mercury concentrations less than 200 mg/L.”—Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 1991 Jul;21(1):62-4. Mercury is present in such diverse things as air conditioner filters, tattooing inks, lawn pesticides, and some fabric softeners. Environmentally safe household products and paints can be had from AFM at, (800) 968-9355. Melalucca™, Shaklee™, Global Light Network™ (please give my number 516), and Neways™ also carry nontoxic household and personal care products that make a difference in the health of the entire family.


Paresthesia, or abnormal sensation, tingling, and numbness around the mouth and in the extremities, is the most common sensory disturbance in Hg poisoning, and is usually the first sign of toxicity (Fagala and Wigg, 1992; Joselow et al., 1972; Matheson et al., 1980; Amin-Zaki, 1979). In Japanese who ate contaminated fish, there was numbness in the extremities, face, and tongue (Snyder, 1972; Tokuomi et al., 1982). Iraqi children who ate mercury-poisoned bread experienced sensory changes including numbness in the mouth, hands, and feet, and a feeling that there were “ants crawling under the skin.”


Methyl Mercury (MeHg), like cadmium, lead, and arsenic binds to sulfhydryl groups on cysteine, which may compromise the function of enzymes and ion channels. MeHg also interacts with DNA and RNA, resulting in reductions in protein synthesis. Metallothioneins (MT) are a group of low molecular weight, cysteine-rich, metal-binding proteins that bind a variety of metal ions. Zinc is probably the most important nutrient that protects the body against mercury and cadmium, for zinc can induce protective levels of metallothionein even before the body is exposed to cadmium. Cadmium is a strong inducer of MT, so it is apparent MT rises to meet the need if enough of its precursors are available. Copper can do this as well, but to a lesser extent. It is also induced by physical trauma and emotional stress. However, increased MT expression can be due to glutathione depletion! Low GSH levels increase a toxic-metals-adverse effect raising MT. It should be noted these heavy metal induced MTs are also toxic! “Both GSH and Zn were effective in protecting against CdMT nephrotoxicity. Elevation in renal-cortex GSH levels, however, was not essential for Zn protection, as a low dose of Zn, that caused no significant increase in renal GSH, also protected against CdMT. On the other hand, maintenance of normal GSH status was essential for Zn protection, as inhibition of GSH synthesis abolished this protection. Both GSH and Zn reduced the accumulation of Cd as well as MT in the renal cortex, with Zn causing greater reduction in Cd accumulation than that of MT” (Tang W, Sadovic S, Shaikh ZA). “Animals in bad condition, such as that resulting from fasting, cannot be protected against Cd toxicity even if the hepatic MT level is high” (Shimizu M, Morita S). A search will turn up more than 600 references to inositol and metallothionein as well (caffeine depletes the body of inositol, so no soft drinks or coffee!). Zinc, copper, and manganese can all interfere with the absorption of cadmium. Iron, ascorbic acid, and protein also can reduce the absorption of low levels of dietary cadmium. Calcium and thiols like cysteine reduce the toxicity of oral cadmium. “Thus, it appears that the cellular levels of GSH, but not MT gene expression, play an important role in resistance to arsenic toxicity and aberrant gene activation. Moreover, depletion of GSH enhances arsenic-induced proto-oncogene activation, which might contribute to subsequent transformation” (Shimizu M, Hochadel JF, Fulmer BA, Waalkes MP). It is the universal lack of zinc and the depletion of GSH by heavy metals that account for most of the toxic accumulations in our children and further enhance their toxicity. Ensure adequate zinc and GSH!


Arsenic poisoning does cause a variety of systemic problems. The typical symptoms are: diaphoresis (heavy perspiration), muscle spasms, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, garlic odor to the breath, diarrhea, anuria (little urination), dehydration, hypotension, cardiovascular collapse, aplastic anemia, polyneuritis, optic neuritis, anesthesia (loss of feeling), paresthesia (such as burning pains in the hands and feet), weight loss, restlessness, nausea, headache, and death. The degree of and the symptoms a person has will be determined by the severity of the exposure. Sources of arsenic: cigarettes, ant poisons, insecticides, weed killers, paint, wallpaper, ceramics, treated wood used in playgrounds, plastic bedding and playpens pads, wool carpets and underlays, and your drinking water!


In one study, N-acetylcysteine completely suppressed arsenic induced apoptosis and incubation of the cells with catalase resulted in significant suppression of arsenic-induced apoptosis. As previously stated, selenium, enhanced with vitamin E, effectively neutralizes arsenic and mercury as does zinc and iodine, all of which support the thyroid. More recent studies show that folate supplementation (400 mcg, day) can significantly (14%) lower blood levels of arsenic.


I have mentioned several causes of vomiting and diarrhea, but of vital interest is the urgency of controlling these serious problems. Prolonged vomiting that loses the alkaline contents of the upper intestine and stomach contents creates metabolic acidosis. (Losing only the stomach contents produces metabolic alkalosis.) Prolonged diarrhea in which excess alkaline intestinal secretions are lost (especially in infants) also creates metabolic acidosis. When suffering vomiting or diarrhea, one must strive to maintain body pH while vigorously pursuing means of stopping these drains on the body stores.


To remove antimony, use SAMe, 5 mg a day per pound of kid, in divided doses. Or you can use the
poor man’s “methylating mix” of B12 (100 mcg per pound), folate (10 mcg per pound), and TMG or choline (10-20 mg per pound). Spread these through the day. They may be energizing, so you might want to give them in the earlier part of the day. Be aware of the fact that many undermethylated kids cannot handle more folate.


One of the greatest effects of cadmium, arsenic, lead, and mercury is that they deplete selenium in the body because selenium is essential for their removal. Selenium atoms combine with cadmium, arsenic, lead, and mercury atoms and escort them out of the body via the bile system. This bile must be bound with soluble fiber to prevent reabsorption! When selenium is depleted by these heavy metals, there is less selenium to form the deiodinase enzymes that convert T4 to T3 resulting in low T3 and hypothyroidism. Curiously, arsenic, which is also detoxified by selenium, is said to increase levels of T3! Also, there is less selenium to form glutathione peroxidase, one of the body’s prime antioxidants that is involved in the production and uptake of T3. “Remarkably, selenium compounds catalyze the oxidation of MT even under overall reducing conditions such as those prevailing in the cytosol. In this manner, the binding and release of zinc from zinc-thiolate co-ordination sites is linked to redox catalysis by selenium compounds, changes in the glutathione redox state, and the availability of either a zinc donor or a zinc acceptor” (Chen Y, Maret W.).


Many have expressed the fear that continued supplementation of vitamin B12 and TMG would change systemic mercury to methyl mercury, its most toxic form. Methylation of mercury does not occur at a physiologically relevant rate in mammals according to Mr. Andy Cutler, Chemist, and PH.D. Methylation in general, he says, will benefit about 80-90% of the people, but the rest need to avoid it. People with problems who need more methylation will usually have some of the classic signs and symptoms of B12 deficiency (like a smooth, shiny tip of the tongue).


(Edited) “In this study, we have examined the effect of mercury as an inducer of oxidative stress, and the resultant effect on ß-Amyloid (Aß) production and phosphorylated tau levels in neuroblastoma cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated that these effects are reduced and/or reversed by the pineal indoleamine, melatonin.


“A 24-hour exposure to 50 µg/L mercury induced significant cell cytotoxicity in neuroblastoma cells. Treatment of cells with melatonin before administration of mercury greatly reduced the mercury-induced cytotoxicity. Mercury treatment of cells produced another undocumented phenomenon, that of inducing oxidative stress, as measured by the loss of reduced glutathione (GSH) from cells. This was a rapid process, requiring only 30 minutes of exposure to mercury. Similarly, pretreating the cells with melatonin...before administration protected cells from the mercury-induced oxidative stress. Melatonin’s mechanism of action is at present unclear; however, melatonin is known to bind heavy metals (Limson et al., 1998REF15) and to increase intracellular GSH levels through an up-regulation of GSH-synthesizing enzymes (Todoroki et al., 1998REF3). It is thus possible to speculate on two mechanisms for melatonin’s antioxidant action, namely, (a) melatonin as a chelating agent binding mercury, thus eliminating its cytotoxic properties, or (b) melatonin causing production of increased levels of intracellular antioxidants such as Glutathione (which chelates mercury) (Todoroki et al., 1998REF30). It is not excluded that both these mechanisms could be operating simultaneously.


“The release of both Aß 1-40 and Aß 1-42 into the culture medium was increased by exposure of SHSY5Y cells to mercury. Melatonin preincubation resulted in a significant decrease in Aß release....Mercury has previously been shown to be a potent inhibitor of enzymes, especially those containing sulfhydryl groups (Edstrom and Mattsson, 1976REF9). Protein kinase C activity in vitro and in brain tissue is markedly reduced in a concentration-dependent manner by mercury (Rajanna et al., 1995REF21)...Mercury induces both Aß production and oxidative stress; thus, the chelation of mercury by melatonin could shift the APP metabolism back toward the secretase pathway, reducing Aß production and the concomitant, oxidative, stress-inducing effects of mercury and Aß. Aß-Fibrillogenesis is also inhibited by melatonin, thereby potentially reducing the toxic buildup of Aß 1-40 and Aß 1-42 fibrils (Pappolla et al., 1998REF20). Furthermore, melatonin has been shown to reduce the release of soluble APP from cells in culture and to reduce the levels of APP mRNA and other housekeeping protein mRNAs (Song and Lahiri, 1997REF24). These data suggest that melatonin may be involved in metabolic mechanisms regulating APP and other essential cellular protein production, over and above its antioxidant capacity.


“In a similar fashion, mercury induced an increase in tau phosphorylation as compared with untreated cells. Melatonin treatment was able to protect cells from the mercury-induced tau hyperphosphorylation. Mercury’s influence on tau phosphorylation remains unclear; however, it may be an indirect effect via oxidative stress and Aß production. Both Aß and oxidative stress have been shown to influence tau phosphorylation (Busciglio et al., 1995REF6; Takashima et al., 1996REF26)”—Journal of Neurochemistry, Vol. 74, No. 1, 2000 231-236 © 2000 International Society for Neurochemistry.


Melatonin is concentrated in the mitochondria, and protects them from oxidative damage. Dr. Reiter found melatonin to be 5.9 times more effective than glutathione and 11.3 times more effective than mannitol in fighting dangerous, hydroxyl radicals.


            A direct mechanism involving mercury’s inhibition of cellular enzymatic processes by binding with the hydroxyl radical (SH) in amino acids appears to be a major part of the connection to allergic/immune reactive conditions. For example, mercury has been found to strongly inhibit the activity of xanthine oxidase and dipeptyl peptidase (DPP IV) that are required in the digestion of the milk protein casein, and the same protein that is cluster differentiation antigen 26 (CD26) which helps T-lymphocyte activation. CD26 or DPP IV is a cell surface glycoprotein that is very susceptible to inactivation by mercury binding to its cysteinyl domain.


            DPP IV has many different functions in the body besides digesting gluten and casein. As stated, this protein is known to influence T cells of the immune system. It is also a binding protein for purine and adenosyl deaminase. Because of this, a problem with DPP IV can throw off the immune system, the amino acid profile, and methylation. To improve methylation when this DPP IV is hampered, these nutrients may be helpful: Tri-Methyl-Glycine (TMG), B6, folic acid, B12, magnesium, and serine. A supplement of D-L-methionine or S-Adenosyl-Methionine (SAM) is often helpful to the undermethylated; however, a large amount of methionine readily chelates many vital minerals as well as histamine and heavy metals.


            Mercury and other toxic metals also inhibit binding of opioid receptor agonists (mimics of the real thing) to opioid receptors, while magnesium stimulates binding to opioid receptors. Studies involving a large sample of autistic and schizophrenic patients found that over 90% of those tested had high levels of the milk protein beta-casomorphin-7 in their blood and urine, and defective enzymatic processes for digesting milk protein, and similarly for the corresponding enzyme needed to digest wheat gluten. The studies found high levels of IgA antigen-specific antibodies for casein, lactoalbumin, and beta-lactoglobulin, and of IgG and IgM for casein. Beta-casomorphin-7 is a morphine-like compound that results in neural dysfunction, as well as being a direct histamine releaser in humans, and it induces skin reactions. Minerals are also involved in the enzymatic processes involved in utilization of B6, B12, and Super Oxide Dismutase (SOD). Mercury blocks these enzymatic processes, and it affects cellular membrane influx/efflux of minerals such as calcium, magnesium, sodium, and potassium. Mercury also affects the ATP energy system and neurotoxicity by affecting the distribution and utilization of these minerals.


            Elimination of milk and wheat products and sulfur foods from the diet has been found to improve the condition. A double blind study using a potent opiate antagonist (which blocks a receptor without having any effect on the cell), naltrexone (NAL), produced significant reduction in autistic symptomology among the 56% most responsive to opioid effects. The behavioral improvements were accompanied by alterations in the distribution of the major lymphocyte subsets, with a significant increase in the T-helper-inducers and a significant reduction of the T-cytotoxic-suppressors (Alpha Lipoic Acid also provides this same shift in these ratios—WSL), and a normalization of the CD4/CD8 ratio. (If naltrexone is used, it should be only in low doses of 3 to 6 mg per day in conjunction with a Gf/Cf dietary. Higher doses of 25 to 50 mg, usually prescribed, can cause children to have pain and headaches according to Dr. Bruce Semon, Child Psychiatrist—WSL.) Studies have found mercury causes increased levels of the CD8 T-cytotoxic-suppressors. As noted previously, such populations of patients have also been found to have high levels of mercury, and to recover after mercury detoxification. As mercury levels are reduced, the protein binding is reduced, and improvement in the enzymatic process occurs.


            Another effect of mercury and toxic metals is a reduction in B-lymphocytes. One of these studies dealing with autistic patients has found this causes a tendency to be more seriously affected by viruses, and to develop intestinal disorders including leaky gut, lymphoid modular hyperplasia (measles lesions in the gut), and a high incidence of parasites.


            Additional, cellular-level enzymatic effects of mercury’s binding with proteins include blockage of sulfur-oxidation processes which have been found to be significant factors in many autistic, plus enzymatic processes involving vitamins B6 and B12, with effects on the cytochrome-C energy processes as well. Epsom salts (magnesium sulfate) baths, supplementation with the P5P form of vitamin B6, and with vitamin B12 shots are methods of dealing with these enzymatic blockages that have been found effective by those treating such conditions. Mercury has also been found to have adverse effects on cellular mineral levels of calcium, magnesium, zinc, and lithium. [By heavily depleting magnesium, excess calcium is allowed into the cells. Supplementing with these minerals, especially with high amounts of magnesium (preferably as glycinate), and zinc, has been found to be effective in the majority of cases—WSL]. Another result of these toxic exposures and enzymatic blockages is the effect on the liver and dysfunction of the liver detoxification processes which autistic children have been found to have. All of the autistic cases tested were found to have high, toxic exposures/effects and liver detoxification profiles outside of normal.—Immune Reactive Conditions: The mercury connection to eczema, autism, schizophrenia, lupus, asthma, and allergies (taken from larger study)—Bernard Windham, Chemical Engineer.


This abstract adds to Bernard’s thoughts: Ciba Found Symp 1977 Apr 26-28;(46):243-61; “Gastrointestinal complications of immunodeficiency syndromes”. Katz AJ, Rosen FS. Patients with B-cell deficiency have a high incidence of prolonged Giardia lamblia infection of the gastrointestinal tract that causes symptoms of malabsorption with villus flattening. The changes are reversible with therapy directed against Giardia. There is a high incidence of pernicious anemia in patients with agammaglobulinaemia. Those with abnormal B-lymphocytes tend to develop lymphoid nodular hyperplasia (measles in the gut). Gastrointestinal disease is rare in boys with X-linked agammaglobulinaemia (a lack of gamma globulins) when compared with adults with the ‘acquired’ or common variable form of the disease. T-cell deficiency results in intractable diarrhea and monilial (fungus, specifically Candida) infection of the gastrointestinal tract. End of abstract. In another study, a significant reduction in the number of B-lymphocytes was observed in mercury-exposed individuals. Pernicious anemia (vitamin B12 deficiency) occurs 20 times more frequently in patients with hypothyroidism than generally. Another common anemia in hypothyroidism is caused by the bone marrow being too cold to produce adequate red blood cells! These anemias will be made worse with iron supplementation.


Heavy metals inhibit cytochrome p450 enzymes and mitochondrial energy production; and they are neurotoxins. The stress pattern spoken of, indicative of adrenal stress, is presented in hair analysis by a marked, paired deviation in calcium and magnesium with an opposing deviation in sodium and potassium in the opposite direction. This pattern is accompanied by an increased level of zinc (which is displaced from functional sites by cadmium, nickel, lead, and mercury), and elevated boron. Very low levels of calcium, manganese, cobalt, chromium, copper, and sometimes zinc characterize the malabsorption pattern. Copper is essential for production of monoamine oxidase that degrades hormones after they have fulfilled their function. The malabsorption pattern can be associated with intestinal yeast overgrowth, hypochlorhydria, achlorhydria (B12, thiamin, zinc, or histamine deficiency), food allergies (increased with heavy metal burden), or inflammatory bowel disease.

Nickel exposure is common, and nickel exposure has been found to be significantly related to perinatal unthriftiness (failure to thrive) and mortality in animal studies, and to large numbers of people affected by allergic conditions such as eczema and psoriasis vulgaris and serious autoimmune conditions such as lupus and CFS.


Hypoparathyroidism, vitamin D deficiency, kidney failure, acute pancreatitis, or inadequate amounts of plasma magnesium and protein may also cause a deficiency of calcium in the serum. Mild hypocalcemia is asymptomatic (or shows as nocturnal cramps—WSL). Severe hypocalcemia is characterized by cardiac arrhythmias and tetany with hyperparesthesia (tingling as if “asleep”) of the hands, feet, lips, and tongue. The underlying disorder is diagnosed, and calcium is given by mouth or intravenous infusion. Hypocalcemia is also seen in dysmature newborns, in infants born of mothers with diabetes, or in normal babies of normal mothers delivered after a long or stressful labor and delivery. The condition is signaled by vomiting, twitching of extremities, poor muscle tone, high-pitched crying, and difficulty in breathing—1998 Mosby-yearbook, Inc.


The very lack of calcium increases a parathyroid hormone that opens the L-channels allowing uncontrolled amounts of calcium into the cells of smooth muscles causing contraction and high blood pressure, for example. This would also contribute to a spastic colon. Then, the parathyroid hormone, stimulated by a lack of vitamin D, induces the extraction of calcium from the bones. Contrariwise, mercury and PCBs block the L-channels contributing to low muscle tone. Supplementing calcium (1000­ mg), manganese, magnesium, and vitamin B6 controls influx of calcium into cells.


Dr. Lynn Wecker and his colleagues at Louisiana State Medical Centre observed that the autistic population had significantly lower levels of calcium, magnesium, copper, manganese, and chromium, and higher levels of lithium as compared to sex and age-matched controls. Children with autistic features (autistic-like), classified as having childhood-onset pervasive disorder, had lower levels of magnesium, cadmium, cobalt, and manganese as compared to controls. Discriminant function analysis using the 14 trace elements correctly classified 90.5% of the normal and 100% of the autistic population. Using a stepwise procedure, the five elements with the greatest discriminatory power were calcium, copper, zinc, chromium, and lithium. Analysis based on these five trace elements led to the correct classification of 85.7% of the normal and 91.7% of the autistic group. You must supplement with a good vitamin-mineral product such as Mannatech™ GlycoBears® chewables (26 easily assimilated vitamins and minerals (no iron).


Wecker and team further observed that trace element imbalances in the human body can disrupt neurotransmitter function and produce marked changes in behavior—many of which are consistent with symptoms of autism. Deficiencies of mineral nutrients can make a child more susceptible to heavy metal absorption, and conversely, heavy metals can create mineral deficiencies. Furthermore, one genetic difference found in animals and humans is cellular retention differences for metals related to the ability to excrete mercury. For example, it has been found that individuals with genetic blood factor type APOE-4 (apolipoprotein E) do not excrete mercury readily and bioaccumulate mercury, resulting in susceptibility to chronic autoimmune conditions such as Alzheimer’s, or Parkinson’s, as early as age 40, whereas those with type APOE-2 readily excrete mercury and are less susceptible. Those with type APOE-3 are intermediate to the other 2 types. Many have puzzled about where excessive levels of arsenic are coming from. It may come from wool carpets and underlays that are treated with arsenic! Yes, and from your playpen mattress and sand box! Data show that cereals are a major source of arsenic during infancy and that changes in hair arsenic levels during infancy correspond to the introduction of cereals into the diet. This may relate to the fact that much arsenic comes from drinking water, including that used in making that cereal. You must have a heavy metals check, and detoxify your child at the earliest time. My book “Self-help to Good Health” (50 Chapters, $29.95 US) has a Chapter on detoxifying heavy metals naturally.


Heavy-metal overloads can effectively be treated using oral supplements of zinc, manganese, cysteine, serine, and vitamins B6, C, and E (also cilantro, iodine, selenium, and melatonin - Willis). The initial treatment must be gradual to avoid a sudden dumping of metal toxics from tissues, which could cause kidney damage and a worsening of symptoms—Dr. Wm. Walsh.


Inexperienced doctors trying to detoxify mercury with DMSA, and possibly DMPS, may damage these children irreparably! Natural medical physicians throughout the US have reported MS symptoms in adults and intractable seizures in pediatric patients with high dose and extended use of DMSA (2, 3-dimercaptosuccinic acid), Chemet, or Succimer. Irresponsible use of these toxic drugs will damage the sulfoxidation system of PST children beyond repair. One reason to be careful is that DMPS takes the metals out in a certain order: zinc, tin, copper, arsenic, mercury, plumbum (lead), iron, and cadmium, creating damaging deficiencies in necessary metals (minerals). DMSA does not chelate aluminum, one of the problem metals for the kids. Magnesium in glycinated form is said to reduce aluminum as will malic acid (apple cider vinegar). In addition to folic acid, vitamins B6, and B12, and molybdenum, DMPS takes considerable glutathione (GSH) to metabolize it. Furthermore, “Urinary values, without looking at the cellular mercury/low weight, free-thiols, and therefore susceptibility to the metal, are useless. One who has 1 mcg/l coming out in the urine, due to depleted thiols, can be more toxic from mercury than one with 50 mcg/l coming out who has normal or high cellular thiols. Thus, it would be very important to test cellular thiols in some cellular samples OTHER THAN BLOOD. Since red cells are renewed every 120 days, the red cell pool is not usually affected by the chronic mercury that accumulates in thiol-richer and/or more stable cells of the organs of the kidneys, liver, brain, colon surfaces, oral cavity gums, and alveolar bone. Unless you check those cells, and look at mercury/low weight, free-thiol ratios in those, and get some real indicators of toxicity and susceptibility, the urine measurements are useless.”—Ray Saarela, Biochemist who has experienced DMPS damage, and developed a safe protocol for detoxifying mercury. Ray has this to say about DMPS and DMSA: “You may want neither of the two, as both worsen the kidneys (DMPS horribly, and DMSA does also cause kidney pain and worsening each time I take even just very small doses in 25-150 mg range).” It is important to realize that DMSA triggers the inflammatory mediator Tumor Necrosis Factor [TNF(a)], so it would be important to actively use agents that reduce inflammation when using this protocol. Dr. Yasko has been able to accomplish that with an RNA-based, oral, liquid product that is easily added to the food ( or


These are the recommendations of the DAN! Mercury Detoxification Position Paper (May 2001): “DMSA should be given in doses of no more than 10 mg/kg/dose and no more than 30 mg/kg/day with a maximum dose of 500 mg (1500 mg/day maximum). Exceeding these limits has been associated with a significantly higher incidence of side effects and toxicity. The dosing interval can be any convenient period, as long as the dose limits are not exceeded. There is no convincing evidence to suggest that dosing intervals shorter than eight hours provide any inherent benefit, although a lower dose given more frequently may help to reduce troublesome side effects. In addition, the subset of children who experience improvement only while receiving DMSA may benefit from more frequent dosing. Clinical experience supporting 3- or 4-hour dosing intervals is matched by equally good results with 8-hour dosing. As always, the dosing interval should be based on the clinical response of the individual patient.”


Phase II of the DAN! protocol calls for adding Alpha Lipoic Acid to the treatment: “Start with 1 to 3 mg/kg/day of alpha-lipoic acid and increase to 10 mg/kg/day as tolerated. Alpha-lipoic acid is a natural product of human cells and so has minimal toxicity; doses of up to 25 mg/kg/day given over more than three years have been studied in adults with no detectable toxicity. Nevertheless, there is frequently an explosion of Candida overgrowth that is limiting its use. There is also a theoretical concern that alpha-lipoic acid may bind to DMSA and reduce the availability of both, but this has not been seen clinically. Another concern is that alpha-lipoic acid reduces the removal of methyl-mercury by glutathione, which is a reason why it should be given with DMSA. [Lipoic acid apparently is metabolized in the liver by glutathione as large doses of lipoic acid have been shown to literally drain the liver’s glutathione stores as lipoic acid - glutathione conjugates are excreted into bile. This is not, per se, toxic, but it is surely an undesirable side effect! It also depletes molybdenum and vitamin B12—WSL.} There is also evidence that alpha-lipoic acid reduces copper excretion (Dr. Russell Blaylock, MD, in “Excitotoxins”, says it chelates iron and copper). Since DMSA increases copper excretion (it has been used to treat the copper intoxication of Wilson’s disease), this should not be a problem if alpha-lipoic acid is used with DMSA” (nevertheless, it can contribute to the cysteine pool potentially increasing the risk of cysteine toxicity if this pathway is messed up —WSL).


The DAN! protocol continues: “A serious concern with alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) is that it can facilitate the movement of mercury out of and into the cells. It can be very useful in mobilizing mercury from within the cells and making it available for DMSA to chelate. Without the DMSA to ‘grab’ the mercury from lipoic acid, it may readily enter other tissues.” Dr. Holmes reports that it appears that adding glycine to every dose of DMSA increases mercury excretion. She further states that younger patients excrete much more mercury than the older patients accounting for their more rapid favorable response.  Iif you choose to use DMPS, this doctor’s note may be of interest: “Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a major carbohydrate component of the extracellular matrix and can be found in the skin, joints, eyes, and most other organs and tissues. HA is utilized in many chemotherapy protocols as a potentiating agent. HA is also being utilized for many novel applications in medicine. Personal experience has shown that the addition of 2 ml with the DMPS tends to improve the excretion of mercury by two- to four-fold with virtually no toxicity”.


A more real concern has developed in that when ALA is added to the DMSA, a tremendous overgrowth of Candida occurs. As a result, several DAN! Doctors have looked for an effective chelator to use in conjunction with or separate from DMSA. They have settled on TTFD. In the August issue of Neuroendocrinology Letters, Lonsdale and associates report on the use of a supplemental nutrient known as thiamine (vitamin B1) tetrahydrofurfuryl disulfide (TTFD or Allithiamine) in treating 10 autistic spectrum children between the ages of 3 and 8 years. This synthetic disulfide derivative of the vitamin is manufactured in Japan where the original, naturally-occurring substance was discovered in garlic. Since it has never been approved for use in the U.S.A., Dr. Lonsdale holds an Independent Investigator License from the FDA. The patent in Japan expired years ago and no drug company in the U.S. has undertaken the rigorous testing required for its use here. The study reported by Lonsdale and associates showed that 8 of the 10 children improved with two months of continuous treatment with TTFD. There was evidence of biologic disturbances that may be an important part of the environmental factors involved. For example, it is known that it is not uncommon for many of these autistic children to suffer from various vitamin deficiencies and three of the children in this study were shown to be deficient in vitamin B1.

This is a serious as a lack contributes to kidney disease, and many other symptoms. Since TTFD provides high concentrations of this vitamin as part of its metabolic action, later tests showed this deficiency to be much improved. Six of the ten children had unusually high concentrations of arsenic in their urine that increased after 30 days of treatment with TTFD and decreased after 60 days, thus providing evidence that this toxic metal was being removed from the child thus affected. There were also sporadic appearances of mercury, cadmium, lead, and nickel in the urine of some of the children. TTFD blocks taurine production causing a light-colored stool; thus, taurine needs to be supplemented.


Another form of vitamin B1 looks most promising, that is Benfotiamine, an oil-soluble metabolite of thiamine. It works to enhance the enzyme transketolase that transforms glucose into useable forms in the cell, and minimizes conversion of glucose to harmful sorbitol. Tests show Benfotiamine to be 15 times more effective than vitamin B1 in increasing the activity of transketolase. It blocks Nuclear factor-kappa beta that regulates cellular proliferation and suicide and that is implicated in inflammation, tumor formation, macular degeneraton, and retinal disease. Benfotiamine has shown to benefit the diabetic in prevention of both retinal damage and peripheral neuropathy.


Kidney side effects and lowering of neutrophils are both documented DMSA side effects. Extended use of DMSA can cause mild to moderate neutropenia with increased SGOT, SGPT, Platelet count, Cholesterol, Alkaline Phosphatase, and Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN). Adverse reactions to DMSA include ataxia (inability to coordinate muscular movement that may indicate a copper deficiency), convulsions, rash, nausea, diarrhea, anorexia, headache, dizziness, sensorimotor neuropathy, changes in urination, arrhythmia, infection, redness of the face and extremities, heartburn, vomiting, loose stools, metallic taste in mouth, hemorrhoids, stomach and abdomen cramps, flu-like symptoms, tremors and twitches (magnesium depletion), and headache. Based on experiences and literature studies and studying people’s reactions to chelators, red itchy skin, swollen faces and hands are most probably reactions to DMSA, that is, metabolic or immunological intolerance to it, rather than an ACTION of cleansing. Those people who tolerate DMSA OK have not developed itches or swollen body areas.


According to the DAN! protocol, these are the common side effects of DMSA: “nausea, diarrhea, anorexia, flatulence, and fatigue. If these become serious enough, reducing the dose will usually make the symptoms tolerable. Occasionally, patients develop a maculopapular rash during treatment; this should not to be confused with an allergic reaction. Some autistic children are reported to experience a transient regression in language and behavior during and shortly after treatment. Reducing the dose may also make these symptoms less bothersome. Clinical experience suggests that most children who experience regression at the start of therapy will have less regression with each subsequent cycle of treatment.” Beneficial “side-effects” reported with DMSA therapy in autistic children include rapid progression of language ability, improved social interaction, improved eye contact, and decreased self-stimulatory behaviors (“stimming”). Children with motor problems have experienced significant improvement in both strength and coordination. If intestinal dysbiosis (particularly Candida) is not adequately treated prior to starting DMSA, any improvement from the DMSA may be masked when the intestinal dysbiosis worsens on exposure to a rich culture medium such as DMSA, cysteine, cystine, or NAC. Additionally, the detoxifying pathways will be overloaded, leading, in my humble opinion, to recirculating of the heavy metals! It is interesting to note a report that NAC can stimulate lymphocytes or inhibit them, usually the later in the limited tests done. Consult your physician if there are bothersome effects.


DMSA induced Erythema multiforme (Stevens-Johnson syndrome) is a self-limited inflammatory disorder of the skin and mucous membranes. It is thought to be induced by immune complexes and mediated by lymphocytes. Distinctive target-shaped skin lesions, sore throat, mucous ulcers, and fever characterize it. It usually begins a week or more after therapy starts and will usually resolve spontaneously if the inciting medication is stopped. Toxicepidermal necrolysis (TEN) is the most serious cutaneous drug reaction and may be fatal if not recognized. Its onset is generally very acute and characterized by epidermal necrosis without significant dermal inflammation. Its pathology is poorly understood, but it also usually resolves when the inciting agent is stopped. TEN and Stevens-Johnson syndrome are absolute contraindications to continued DMSA therapy. There are no specific treatments other than supportive therapy and symptom relief. It is reported that some are using DMSA in liquid form. This may be an expensive mistake as DMSA in liquid is said to lose up to 20% of its potency each 24 hours!


Zinc excretion doubles during the administration of DMSA. This can cause kidney dysfunction where the hair zinc/copper ratio is less than 5:1. Patients must be kept hydrated as renal function can be compromised. DMSA removes mercury from the “extracellular compartment,” which is about half the body. DMSA is completely useless for detoxifying the brain, and if not used on the every 4-hour schedule may increase brain mercury levels according to Andy Cutler and others. Your child may also show an increase in autistic symptoms (may become more “stimmy” or show more oppositional behavior). If the side effects are severe or difficult to deal with, stop the cycle and allow a rest time, then start the next cycle with a lower dosage. You may also want to try a shorter, chelation cycle, with a larger rest period in between. The main target for mercury is the kidney. Mercury has been shown to cause a 50% reduction in kidney, filtration function after just two months with new amalgam fillings in the mouth. It would be wise to support the kidneys by supplying kidney, glandular supplements and other nutrients. Dietary fiber and apple pectin can aid the organs of elimination.


Regarding challenge tests with chelating agents (administration of appropriate agent followed by mercury urinalysis), Dr. Dietrich Klinghardt, long-experienced chelation therapist, has this to say; “Our clinical experience has shown that when a patient is mineral deficient (especially sodium, calcium, or potassium), the body is unable to effectively mobilize toxic metals with a challenge test! The patient’s mineral status needs to be corrected before successful mobilization [via a challenge test or actual detoxing] for mercury should be attempted.” A failure to ensure that adequate copper, molybdenum, zinc, selenium, manganese, magnesium, and glutathione stores exist before chelation can induce a dangerous lack of these essential nutrients. Selenium binds mercury, cadmium, and arsenic and assists in reducing the amount of zinc and copper excreted through the urine in the presence of mercury. Seleno-methionine is more readily incorporated into the system than are other forms of selenium. This is particularly evident in the kidney. In workers who are occupationally exposed to mercury, their mean urinary selenium was lowered. By increasing their selenium through the diet, urinary mercury excretion increased and blood levels of mercury reduced. Most children are dehydrated, and efforts to rehydrate them should be made before chelation is begun.


The DAN! protocol states, “Selenium supplementation should be limited to 1-4 mcg/kg/day. Magnesium, molybdenum, manganese, vanadium, and chromium are all among the minerals that are deficient in autistic children; these can be supplied by a multi-mineral supplement. Be sure that this supplement does not contain copper. Copper is the one mineral that autistic children often have in excess and additional supplements will only worsen the excess.” The exception would be for those children who have been tested low in copper, in which case it must be supplemented for vitamin C, zinc, molybdenum, and DMSA will dangerously deplete it. It would be valuable to monitor red-cell, copper levels. I further venture to say the amount of selenium recommended here is far too low, and should be in the 5 mcg/kg range for mercury has already depleted the child’s stores of selenium, and chelating will reduce it the more. The presence of adequate selenium will bind mercury, preventing recycling in the gut and increasing release through the urine.


Urgent warning: Mothers are posting that their kids’ responses to DMSA are exactly reverse of what should be occurring. The kid feels great “on” DMSA, but have regression and undesirable behaviors when in the resting or “off” phase. This is encouraging some to put the child on longer “on” periods and shorter “off” periods, even using some DMSA during the “off” period. These children are being poisoned and depleted of vital minerals! Some are reporting back (kidney) pain, which is a sure sign of kidney damage from mercury. One mother acknowledged that the child became progressively worse during off periods, but felt great while “on”, but when the child developed back pain, she stopped chelation. In conversation about the experience, she acknowledged the child was depleted of selenium and molybdenum, but she allowed the chelation anyway. What you don’t know can hurt you! This damage is occurring because panicked mothers are rushing to chelation without knowing the mineral/glutathione/sulfur levels, or they are ignoring known, low-mineral/glutathione levels. Chelation sucks minerals such as zinc, copper, calcium, selenium, magnesium, and molybdenum out of the kid, so if he is short to begin, he becomes dangerously deficient using DMSA. This damages kidneys in particular. Kids with sulfation problems (PST) are the ones being damaged. The only protection from this damage is to know that his molybdenum, selenium, and other mineral levels are high normal going in, and remain normal during chelation. Another mother reports that she knew the child was low on selenium, but she chelated anyway. The result was a dangerously high T3 thyroid hormone reading. This is damaging to the thyroid, liver, and other organs. If anyone is experiencing this reversal of usual response, or has any complaint of kidney pain, they must immediately cease chelation, and never touch it again until all mineral levels are normal to high normal. Doctors who are not monitoring mineral levels should be made aware of this problem, and the serious damage this can cause.


There is confusion over continued supplementation during “on” periods. Mr. Andy Cutler states that supplementation should continue daily whether “on” or “off”. He feels there will be no significant difference in chelation results, and the child’s mineral stores will be better protected. The one exception appears to be zinc. Zinc should probably not be supplemented at a higher level than is in a daily multiple during the “on” days. During “off” days, supplement added zinc in the evening apart from meals, with a bit of oil to aid assimilation. Zinc dipicolinate has been shown to have substantially greater absorption than zinc sulfate or amino acid chelates, but liquid, ionic zinc is best. I suggest Eidon (tm) Ionic Minerals Zinc Liquid Concentrate, which I found at The Vitamin Shoppe. Taking zinc with lecithin may enhance assimilation and sleep, preventing that 2 AM awaking.


The additional thoughts: “It is the author’s continued experience that a ‘healing crisis’ means that more toxins are being pulled out of the tissue than the organs of elimination and the binding capacity of the chelator can cope with, causing the toxins to be redistributed in the body and to produce symptoms. If the choice of chelator, method of administration, dosage, and metabolic support are correct, the patient only feels better. If the patient’s individual priorities and ability to utilize the protocol have not been established, the patient will feel, and be, worse. Depending on the size of the dose, massive amounts (up to a 750% increase from pre-challenge levels) of toxic metals can be mobilized via the liver and dumped into the bowel and or kidney using either SH (DMSA/DMPS) or P-SH (clathration type) chelators. Without proper drainage support, this can cause problems. If the patient is intolerant of or allergic to sulfur there will be additional complications—Timothy Ray, O.M.D., Lac.


A harmful side effect of any detoxification is the production of massive amounts of free radicals. Normally, a healthy body’s antioxidant defenses (especially glutathione, the principle antioxidant in the liver) will neutralize most of the free radicals and protect not only your liver and kidneys, but all the cells threatened. However, when mercury and other poisons are being chelated, and the glutathione stores are depleted, as in autism, then great damage can be done. An interesting sidelight here, studies show that a 30% caloric restriction significantly increased lifespan (50% in some mammals). Additionally, a researcher in San Diego suspected that the life-extending effects of calorie restriction might be the result of a decreased intake of toxins. He removed the toxic, heavy metals from foods and found that the animals that ate a normal amount of food lived as long as the semi-starved animals. More recent studies show that some antioxidant supplements tend to give the same benefits. So, enhancing the body’s ability to detox and to destroy free radicals by using antioxidants, such as the Ambrotose AO™, Phyt•Aloe®, vitamins C and E, selenium, and melatonin can offer vital protection against the damage inherent in all stresses including chelation therapy. Recent studies show that calorie restriction can extend the life of old mice, so it’s never too late to start a good, dietary program supplemented with carefully selected antioxidants.


Mothers looking for a safe, gentle alternative to DMSA/DMPS have found several suggestions for binding and removing heavy metals herein. This is the latest research to come to hand and seems very exciting:


Modified Citrus Pectin Decreases the Total Body Burden of Mercury: A Pilot Human Clinical Trial

 By Isaac Eliaz, M.D., M.S., L.A.c. Medical Director, Amitabha Medical Clinic & Healing Center, Sebastopol, CA




Modified Citrus Pectin (MCP) is a dietary supplement that is derived from the peel and pulp of citrus fruit. MCP is mostly known for its effects on inhibiting cancer metastasis, and reducing tumor growth and development, but also has beneficial effects on cholesterol reduction, digestion, and possibly immune stimulation. It may also play an important role as a safe and effective heavy metal chelator. In a previous study, we demonstrated that MCP increases urinary secretion of heavy metals such as lead, mercury, cadmium, and arsenic. This pilot clinical trial was conducted in order to determine if MCP is able to reduce the total, body burden of mercury.



Five patients were recruited in this pilot human clinical trial. The total body mercury burden for each individual was determined for baseline measurements using DMPS (2,3-Dimercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid) challenge of 250 mg i.v., followed by 6 hours of urine collection. Individuals were then given MCP (Pectasol®, EcoNugenics, Santa Rosa, CA) in the dosage of 15 grams daily. The determination of the total body mercury burden was then repeated after MCP intervention, using an identical DMPS challenge test.


Results and Discussion:

The DMPS data of the participants was recorded and analyzed as in Table 1. The results showed a significant decrease in total body mercury burden for all participants after treatment with MCP (see Chart 1).


The decreases in total body mercury burden became more significant over time, and the smallest decrease in total body mercury burden was found in subject #3 who had the shortest duration of treatment, fourteen weeks. Four months was indicated to be the treatment time needed in order to obtain significant decreases in total body mercury burden.


These results demonstrated that MCP is capable of significantly decreasing the total body mercury burden in individuals after approximately four months. Statistical evaluation showed that the mercury burden for the group dropped from a mean average of 52.22 mcg / g creatinine to 16.02 mcg / g creatinine after dietary intervention with MCP, a 69.32% drop for the population (p=0.0313). Individual decreases ranged from 38.13 to 74.83%. No significant side effects were noted. A possible mechanism of action may be that MCP exerts its heavy metal detoxification through gradient changes between the tissue and the blood stream. Although DMPS specifically evaluates mercury, results from a previous study with MCP increasing the urinary excretion of other toxic heavy metals (lead, cadmium, arsenic) indicate that MCP may be able to decrease the body burden of other heavy metals as well.


This new role of MCP in the chelation of heavy metals may also help in the treatment of cancer, a therapeutic area for which MCP has shown promising results. All the individuals completed the study, and there were no side effects reported.



These results are promising for the therapeutic use of MCP in significantly decreasing the total body mercury burden, and in cases of heavy metal toxicity. We propose a mechanism of action for MCP acting as a gentle chelator in the blood stream. MCP’s gentle nature allowed for safe chelation with no side effects, and so it may be a promising alternative to the harsher intravenous chelating therapies currently offered as primary therapy for heavy metal toxicity. Additional studies are warranted to optimize the application and benefits of MCP in heavy metal toxicity. Pectasol Chelation Complex (tm) by Advanced Bionutritionals provides one gram of MCP with 500 mg modified alginate complex.



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